Vincent Croteau and Jeanne Godequin

My 8th great grandparents were
Vincent Croteau and Jeanne Godequin

This is their Life Story

Ruines de l'église Saint-Nicolas à Veules-les-Roses et la croix hosannière du cimetière.
Ruines de l’église Saint-Nicolas à Veules-les-Roses et la croix hosannière du cimetière. Rue Paul Meurice.

Situated along the Normandy coast of France lies a bustling tourist commune called Veules-les-Roses – the “River of Roses”. Down by the seaside, along the street Paul Meurice, rests the vestiges of Saint-Nicolas, a twelfth century Roman Catholic church. Destroyed in the sixteenth century by landslides caused by the sea, it was rebuilt of sandstone, only to be destroyed again during the Anglo-French war in 1789. All that presently remains is a section of the tower, a sandstone cross, and the torn and tattered remnants of its registers. From an ink blotted partial page of one of those registers we find that a baby boy was brought by his parents, Andre Croteau and Marguerite Metayer, on Tuesday, 29 March 1644, to be baptized in the sanctuary of Saint-Nicolas. That baby would be named during the ceremony as Vincent Croteau. Unfortunately, I know nothing more of Vincent’s early life in Veules, France, the name by which Veules-les-Roses was known during Vincent’s time. When I next find Vincent he is over 3,000 miles from Veules, employed by the Jesuits at Nostre Dame des Anges during the 1666 census of Quebec.9

A transcript of the census of 1666 lists Vincent Croteau as 25 year old cordonnier Vincent Croutier.9 A transcript of the census of 1667 lists Vincent as 26 year old cordonnier Vincent Croustier.10 The 1681 census lists Vincent Crosteau as a cordonnier, 34 years old, along with his wife and family.27 The common denominators between those three listings were the given name Vincent and the fact that the men were a cordonnnier, or shoemaker. The age of the men is problematic, but the 1681 census is incorrect as to Vincent’s age anyway, he being 37 at the time. Was the surname simply a clerical mistake in the census taking or subsequent transcriptions? Whatever the case, it contributes to the various ways in which the shoemaker’s name appears in the records of Quebec: Crodeau, Crosteau, Croteau, Crothos, Crotteau, Croustier and Croutier.

Eighty miles east of Veules-les-Roses is situated the city of Amiens. It is here in 1649, in the great cathedral of Notre-Dame, the largest cathedral in France, that Jacques Godequin and Jeanne Dupuis brought their baby daughter to be baptized. After Jacques death, Jeanne Godequin, now fatherless, was encouraged to travel to Quebec to find a husband. She became one of the approximate 800 girls and women to take part in the Catholic Diocese program to colonize Canada by encouraging Filles-du-Roi to wed Quebec men. Filles-du-Roi stands for daughters of the king. Traveling by land to Dieppe this maiden would there board a ship and arrive in Quebec in August of 1669 with no knowledge of whom she would marry.

The Marriage Contract of Vincent Croteau and Jeanne Godequin

Here’s a story of a man named Vincent, and a maiden named Jeanne, and how they, on 22 Sep 1669, inside the home of Lady Bourdon in the city of Quebec, came together to sign a contract of marriage in front of the Notary Romain Bequet. It was likely that Lady Bourdon, widow of Jean Bourdon, attorney general at the Sovereign Council of New France, had both recruited Jeanne while in France and then sheltered her while in Quebec City. Lady Bourdon was a well established benefactor of the Filles-du-Roi program. The meeting between Vincent and Jeanne was not by chance; history shows us that the men and women were well vetted candidates and that the process of meeting, getting to know each other, and culmination of the marriage contract, was a well orchestrated design of the nuns. Present that day in 1669 to witness this historic event in our ancestors life, was Marie Barbe de Boulogne, widow of the governor of Ailleboust, Denis Joseph de Ruette d’Autheuil, Lord of Sillery, who had succeeded Jean Bourdon as prosecutor general, and Simon Francois Daumont de Saint-Lusson, future explorer of the region of the Great Lakes. Neither the bride or groom was obligated or forced to marry the other. Jeanne must have seen something in the answers Vincent gave to her questions, as she chose him over the other suitors.

A marriage in New France was a coming together of not only the two participants getting married, but also their property. It is the marriage contract which stipulated how that property was to be combined into a figurative community chest — the husband, wife and children comprising the community. On Vincent’s part he was to provide property valued at 200 livres, taken from the finest and best part of his personal property. While Jeanne had lost her father before she came to Quebec she was well endowed for a Filles-du-Roi, her personal property value being rated at 300 livres. She contributed one-half of her property into the community chest, or 150 livres. She also had by gift of the King 50 livres for her participation in the program, and that went into the chest as well, bringing her total to match that of her groom. In front of several dignitaries, the couple had agreed to a lifelong partnership and promised that they would soon be married in a “Notre Mére Sainte Eglise Catholique,” a Catholic Church.

The marriage record itself cannot be located. 

A Study of Notarized Contracts by Vincent Croteau

A uniqueness to researching genealogy in Quebec, is the reliance of Quebec law on notarized documents. If you wanted to make something legal, you had it signed in front of a notary. A similar process exists even today in Quebec. The notary in turn would make a copy of the document and catalog it in their log book. Notarized documents, just like their counterpart, the Drouin church records, haven’t all survived the elements of time and tragedy. When available, however, they remain a valuable and necessary tool for descendants to understand better the life of their Quebec ancestors. I’ve already shared one example of a contract that Vincent signed in front of the Notary Romain Bequet of Quebec City. He would sign three more before changing his primary Notary to Gilles Rageot.

In the marriage contract of 1669, Vincent Croteau was listed as a resident of Cap-Rouge. The typical amount of time contracted by all servants to the Jesuits was from 3-5 years. During his time employed by the Jesuits Vincent would not be free to marry. He could only have signed that contract on 22 September 1669 if he had fulfilled his contractual requirements to the Jesuits. A few months prior to his wedding Vincent signed another contract in front of Notary Bequet, this time an obligation, by which his formal engagement ended, but he agreed to continue to work for the Jesuits. He recognized, as a resident of Cap-Rouge, the sum of 49 pounds, both in goods and silver borrowed from the Jesuits. Here we have the binding of Croteau not only to Cap-Rouge, but also to the Jesuits. It is this notarized document that lends credence to the theory of the earlier census individual Vincent Croutier/Croustier, being Vincent Croteau, and an error in the census itself or the later transcription of it. The later 1681 census solidifies this theory as earlier elucidated.

On 4 April 1670, in front of Bequet, Vincent notarized a Bail. Unlike the American form of bail, the French form represented a rent of farm, land, or buildings, or, as in this instance, a cow. Croteau, of Cap-Rouge, agreed to lease from Jean Routtier, also of Cap-Rouge and the owner of the said seven-year old red milking cow, for three years at the cost of 30 pounds total. In this unique action we get a glimpse into what type of a man Vincent was, and perhaps what drew Jeanne to him. Why rent a cow? Why else — a baby was on the way! The soon-to-be father was planning ahead.

Probably on 9 November 1670, or soon thereafter, in front of the notary Pierre Duquet, dit de La Chenaye of Quebec City, Vincent leased a farm from Antoine Augeron, resident of Rivière-des-Roches, the location of said farm. This land measured 3 arpents in front by 40 in depth and was provided with a dwelling. The property was situated between the land of Pierre de la Voye on one side, and Mathieu Huboust sieur Deslongschamps on the other. Pierre de la Voye “Pierre Lavoie” is another of my 8th great-grandfathers. The Croteau family would soon move away from Rivière-des-Roches and it would be many generations before descendants of both men would eventually unite. That these two great-grandfather’s of mine, knew each other and interacted with each other is obvious in the next notarized document.

On the 2nd of December 1670, Vincent “Crosteau” is once again found at the house of notary Becquet, this time in the company of Laurent Herment (Armand), Jacques LeMeilleur and his neighbor, Pierre de La Voye. All four are contracting a Marché with Jean Talon, intendant of New France — A Marché is a business agreement or contract between two or more people. The deal is as follows: to deliver “… four thousand feet of cedar wood framing proper to the construction of gates and stockade, which will be 20 feet long by 8 or 9 inches square, and other pieces to be used in decorating the stockade posts…they have to deliver this wood …. at the dock of the said city of Quebec or at the inn … for the sum of twenty two “deniers” for each foot of wood to be paid by seignior Juchereau to the said enterprisers or their nominee…”. While Vincent would list his trade as a shoemaker in the census, to feed his family and prosper in New France he would have to do much more than his trade. He also had gained experience in clearing land and creating lumber from the fallen trees for the Jesuits while at Nostre Dame des Anges.

At the home of Notary Gilles Rageot in Quebec City, on 5 Oct 1671, Vincent leased land of Estienne Dumets, at Saint Michel in Cap-Rouge which measured 4 arpents 4 perches abreast by 40 deep, located bordering the Cap-Rouge river in the Demaure seigneury. This time, the lease includes 2 cows, 1 calf, 9 hens and 1 rooster and was witnessed by Jacques de la Touche and Guillaume Roger. The land is described as having had an arpent and a half burned from which Vincent, the farmer, could now clear with a pickaxe, enjoying any income from the crops grown. The contract provides for Vincent to give each year to the lessor the sum of 75 pounds and provide him with 25 bushels of wheat and 6 bushels of peas. He was responsible for the care and maintenance of the buildings and the animals for three years.

The first land purchase, as opposed to lease, by Vincent Crotteau occurred on 20 Feb 1673 and was for farm land located in Saint Michel owned by Jacques Arrivé and sold by his wife Renee de la Parte (Renee Laporte). This was a farm of 2 arpents front and 30 in depth and lay along the St. Lawrence River. Some genealogists claim that this farm was sold a few days later to Pierre Mailloux dit Desmoulins. I disagree. The notarized sale of this land did not occur until 5 Oct 1676 and in that document it clearly states that the lessor (Crotteau) was behind 2 years in arrears to the Seigneur, implying that he had owned the land at least that long. In that same document it states Vincent Crotteau was an inhabitant residing in the coste Saint Michel.

On 26 February 1673, only 6 days after the purchase of his property above, Vincent signs another bail at the home of Notary Rageot for the lease of 3 arpents of land and a dwelling, along the St. Lawrence River, and between the properties of the widow of Jean Juineau (Anne Vidault) on one side and D’Antoine Augeron on the other. This land was owned by Mathieu Hubou dit Deslongchamps. Louis Hebert’s industrious widow, Marie Rolet (my 12th great-grandmother,) would marry Guillaume Hubou as her third husband, the uncle of Mathieu Hubou. The term of the lease was for three years. Our farmer could take from the arable land what wheat he could grow and was allowed to chop wood that he needed for firewood provided he waste none. The lease also came with a red-haired cow of 7 years and buildings that the farmer must provide for and maintain.

5 October 1676 arrives with Vincent Croteau once again visiting the home of Notary Gilles Rageot where he is selling the farm he purchased on 20 Feb 1673. Our great planner must have encountered financial difficulties as he was two years behind in his obligation to the Demaure seigneury. This sale to Pierre Mailloux, however, would satisfy those debts, and our ancestor would be free to pursue other land deals.

On 1 November 1677 Vincent Croteau rents the farm of Noël Pinguet in Saint Michel for a period of 5 years, or until 1 November 1682. This event was notarized by Gilles Rageot in Quebec City on 6 March 1678. The farm was two arpents of frontage on the river by a depth undetermined, but probably 30 arpents like the others lots in this sector, and contained a house, barn, and cellar. Vincent would be responsible not only for the 50 pound annual payment to Pinguet but also the seigneurial rents. The contract was signed in the presence of Pierre Biron and Nicolas Metre. Pierre Biron’s first wife was Barbe Martin, daughter of Abraham Martin and Marguerite Langlois, my 9th great-grandparents.

The Croteau Homestead

The granting of fiefdoms in the seigneurial system of Quebec was unique in North America. From the start of settlement in New France, the King’s representatives had been parceling out land to wealthy or influential members of the Quebec society called seigneurs or lords. In principle, the seigneur would then grant a piece of land to a family under a royalty system. The family would engage in subsistence farming to meet most of their food, heating, and shelter needs. The seigneurial system was based on the feudal system, which involved the personal dependency of censitaires (tenants) on the seigneur. In New France the similarities ended with occupation of land and payment of certain dues. The tenant was normally referred to as a habitant. You can see the usage of that in the notarial contracts signed by Vincent Croteau. The lords had the obligation to rule over their domain, to grant lots, to see to its population, to ensure the administration of justice and the safety of the inhabitants, to develop roads and to build, operate and maintain flour mills, sawmills and others.

For his part, the settler, who was not the owner of the land, undertook to live and build on his lot, to clear it, to fence it and to put it under cultivation. Those whose lots fronted on the river, as was the case for the first occupants, also enjoyed fishing rights. The colonists had to pay the lord the cens (kind of tax) and the rent, either in money or in kind, as the case may be: fish, vegetables, poultry, cattle, firewood, fencing, timber or other products. In addition, the tenants were called upon to pay their own for certain works on the domain of the Lord as well as for the construction and maintenance of mills, chapels or churches, roads and culverts.

On 14 March 1684, Pierre Duquet, dit de La Chenaye, king’s attorney and royal notary (Vincent had a prior document notarized by Pierre Duquet, dit de La Chenaye on 9 Nov 1670), granted land on his seigneur to Vincent Croteau. “Pierre Duquet, Sieur de La Chenaye, king’s attorney and royal notary, residing in this city, which voluntarily recognized … and confessed to having leased out, left, ceded, transported and abandoned from now on and forever as a seigniorial census and rent to Vincent Croteau, residing now at the Côte de Lauzon, present and accepting, taking for himself his heirs or successors in title, six arpents of land on the St. Lawrence River and forty arpents of depth in the land to start at high tide and end at the end of the said forty arpents of depth … in high … being in the fiefdom and Seigneury of La Chenaye.” This 6 arpents of land was along the river which separated the seigneurs of La Chenaye and Villieu, and on the other side, was the land of Antoine Bisson. Antoine was the son of Gervais Bisson and Marie L’Herault my 10th great-grandparents.

The area where Vincent settled is just a post on the road of the missionary, Father Claude Volant of the mission of Saint Claude who served the South shore from Bellechasse to the Duchesne river, in Leclercville. The churches or chapels that will become the closest will be those of Saint-Nicolas, in the seigneury of Lauzon, which will be built in 1690 and that of Sainte-Croix, in the seigneury of the same name, erected in 1694. In the meantime, it was common for people to go to Neuville, on the north bank of the river, for baptisms, weddings, funerals or other religious ceremonies. That required the Croteau family to travel by canoe across the St. Lawrence in order to receive the sacraments. This would play a fateful roll for one of Vincent’s adult children.

Part of this land is still settled by Vincent’s descendants to this day. Vincent planned very well indeed!

Additional Notarized Document

On 5 November 1684, Vincent Crosteau and Nicolas Marion de la Fontaine, signed a Marché in front of the notary Pierre Duquet, dit de La Chenaye. Nicolas Marion was a merchant in the city of Quebec, and he had three hundred cords of wood that he needed dragged to the edge of the city. For his work ten sols for each cord would be paid to Vincent. However, from the total, Nicolas would extract the 27 pounds and 2 sols owed him (probably for the annual seigneurial fees.)

Legal Troubles for Vincent Croteau

A year after his marriage, while living at Saint François, Vincent got into an altercation with Guillaume Constantin who was then residing at St. Ignace. The records left to us are short on specifics, but it appears that the two had a fight which caused injury to Guillaume on the 18th of July 1670. After the altercation Vincent fled the area, but was subsequently captured and imprisoned. The Conseil Souverain heard the case and jailed Vincent for three additional days beyond time served as well as requiring him to pay damages and interest to Guillaume, the doctor who attended Guillaume, and half the hospital charge. Interestingly they also required Guillaume to pay 1/2 the hospital charge which likely indicates he was in some manner culpable as well.

The Family of Vincent Croteau and Jeanne Godequin

Vincent Croteau and Jeanne Godequin had the following children:

  1. Jeanne Croteau2, 33 was born on 02 Jul 1670 in Sillery, Quebec. She died on 08 May 1717 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec2. She married Antoine Beziers Moras on 26 Nov 1685 in Neuville, Quebec2, 33. Jeanne Croteau2, 33 was baptized on 03 Jul 167034 in Sillery, Quebec.
  2. Louis Croteau1-2, 35-37 was born on 28 Nov 1672 in Cap-Rouge, Quebec (Riviere-des-Roches2). He died on 19 May 1747 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2. He married (1) Marie Louise Bordeleau, daughter of Antoine Bordeleau Laforest and Pierrette Alie, on 22 Nov 1695 in Neuville, Quebec1-2, 36, 38. She was born in 1676. She died in 1720. He married (2) Marie Angelique Chatillion Godin Desroches, daughter of Pierre Chatillon Godin Desroches and Marie Jeanne Cochon, on 01 Sep 1721 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec37. Louis Croteau1-2, 35-37 was baptized on 30 Nov 1672 in Cap-Rouge, Quebec (Riviere-des-Roches39). He was buried on 20 May 1747 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec40. He also went by the name of Louis Creteau41. Marie Louise Bordeleau1-2, 35-36 was baptized on 15 Aug 1676 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec36. She was buried on 01 Jul 1720 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec36.
  3. Laurent Croteau2 was born on 15 Nov 1674 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec, (Riviere-des-Roches2). Laurent Croteau2 was baptized on 27 Nov 1674 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec42.
  4. Nicolas Croteau2 was born on 29 Jan 1677 in St-Michel, Quebec2. He died on 14 Mar 1723 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2. He married Marie Catherine Meny on 11 Nov 1709 in Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Quebec2. Nicolas Croteau2 was baptized on 01 Feb 167743 in Sillery, Quebec.
  5. Jean Croteau2 was born on 03 Apr 16792 in Sillery, Quebec. He died in 1684. Jean Croteau2 was baptized on 04 Apr 167944 in Sillery, Quebec. He was buried on 26 Dec 1684 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec2, 45.
  6. Pierre Croteau2 was born about 1681 in Quebec, Canada. He died on 25 May 1760 in Hôpital général de Montréal2. The baptismal record for Pierre Croteau has not been found. His parents were listed as residing in St-Michel, a small settlement that would become part of Notre-Dame-de-Foy, in the 1681 census. Pierre was not included in that listing, but neither was his 2 year old sister Jean Croteau. It would appear then, that this 1681 census listing likely was not provided by Vincent or his wife at the time.
  7. Charles Croteau2, 6 was born about 1682 in Quebec, Canada2. He died on 19 Jun 1745 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2. He married (1) Suzanne Meny on 02 May 1709 in Sainte-Famille, L’Île-d’Orléans, Quebec2, 46. He married (2) Marie Dion, daughter of Philippe Dion and Suzanne Meteyer, on 13 Oct 1710 in Saint-Nicolas, Quebec6. Charles Croteau2, 6 was buried on 20 Jun 1745 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec47. The baptismal record for Charles has not been found. His parents were listed as residing in St-Michel, a small settlement that would become part of Notre-Dame-de-Foy, in the 1681 census. Neither his nor his brother, Pierre, baptismal record has been found. Charles was 27 when he married Suzanne Mesny (Meny) on 02 May 1709
  8. Marie Anne Croteau2, 48 was born on 21 May 1685 in Quebec, Canada2, 48. She died in 1695 in Quebec, Canada. Marie Anne Croteau2, 48 was baptized on 27 May 1685 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec48. She was buried on 11 Jan 1695 in Saint-Nicolas, Quebec2.
  9. Pierre Croteau2, 49 was born on 01 Sep 1687 in Quebec, Canada2, 49. He died on 26 Dec 1765 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2. He married Marie Chartre Chartrain, daughter of Francois Chartre and Marie Pauline Morin, on 29 Apr 17152, 50 in Charlesbourg, Quebec. Pierre Croteau2, 49 was baptized on 07 Sep 1687 in Neuville, Quebec49.
  10. Jacques Croteau2 was born about 16902. He died on 18 Dec 1766 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2. He married Marie Charlotte Dupont on 11 Oct 1728 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2, 51. The baptismal record for Jacques Croteau has not been found.
  11. Marie Louise Croteau2 was born on 21 Oct 1692 in Quebec, Canada2. She died on 14 Apr 1734 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2. She married Jacques Genest Labarre on 22 Nov 1733 in St-Antoine-de-Tilly, Quebec2, 52. Marie Louise Croteau2 was baptized on 06 Nov 1692 in Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, Quebec53.

Citations:

  1. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #7538, Louis Croteau and Marie Louise Bordeleau. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/7538.
  2. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #2803, Vincent Croteau and Jeanne Godequin. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/2803.
  3. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #2804, Andre Croteau and Marguerite Metayer. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/2804.
  4. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #2805, Jacques Godequin and Jeanne Dupuis. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/2805.
  5. Quebec Federation of Genealogical Societies, Fichier Origine, (https://www.fichierorigine.com/), #241082, CROTEAU, Vincent. https://www.fichierorigine.com/recherche?numero=241082.
  6. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 23903, citing image d1p_31210606.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1710-10-13, St-Nicolas; Charles Croteau of Ste-Croix, single, and Marie Dion, single; father of groom, Vincent Croteau; mother of groom, Jean Gautier; father of bride, Philippe Dion; mother of bride, Suzanne Meteyer; witnessed by Jean Baptiste Dubois and Jean Alari; priest, Lepicart. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/23903; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  7. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, Becquet, Romain (1665-1682), 48 of 100; Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005550_1161-00049.
  8. “BANQ”, National Library and Archives of Quebec, Advitam (https://advitam.banq.qc.ca/), Contrats de mariage des districts judiciaires de Québec, de Beauce, de Charlevoix, de Montmagny et de Thetford Mines, 1636-1953. https://www.banq.qc.ca/archives/genealogie_histoire_familiale/ressources/bd/recherche.html.
  9. Census of Canada, 1666, p. 100, under the name of Vincent cloutier.
  10. Sulte, Benjamin, Histoire des Canadiens-Français 1608-1880 : origine, histoire, religion, guerres, découvertes, colonisation, coutumes, vie domestique, sociale et politique, développement, avenir. (Montreal, Wilson & Cie., 1882-1884), vol 4, p. 65.
  11. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, Becquet, Romain (1665-1682); Original Data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005550_1161-00061.
  12. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, 1670; 8 avril Bail a’loyer de Jean Routtier a’ Vincent Crodeau. Page 27 1670; 8 avril Bail de Jean Routtier a’ Vincent Crosteau. Page 27. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005550_1161-00017.
  13. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Actes notariés (Notarial acts) > Québec > Becquet, Romain, 1662-1682, 1394 of 6059. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/03q_cn301s13p_1394.
  14. Jugements et délibérations du Conseil souverain de la Nouvelle-France, Pierre-J.-Olivier Chauveau, New France, Conseil supérieur de Québec (1885), p 627-628; PDF, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/).
  15. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, la Chesnaye, Pierre Duquet de (1663-1687); image 60 of 250; Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005549_1526-00061.
  16. Pierre Duquet, Quebec, Film #008330491, image 1368-1369 of 2541, Bail. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSTC-YBTN?i=1367&cat=1175224; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1175224).
  17. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, Rageot, Gilles (1666-1691), image 34 of 200; Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005508_0897-00035.
  18. Notaire: Gilles Rageot, Quebec, Film #008125039, image 1239-1240 of 1443; Bail. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSVF-YQZR-C?i=1238&cat=1171570; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1171570).
  19. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, Rageot, Gilles (1666-1691), image 48 of 200; Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005508_0897-00049.
  20. Notaire: Gilles RageotQuebec, Film #008710878, images 450-451 of 3381; Vente. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QHV-V3DQ-J47Z?i=449&cat=1171570; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1171570).
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  22. Notaire: Gilles Rageot, Quebec, Film #008710878, image 455, Bail. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QHV-J3DQ-JHVM?i=454&cat=1171570; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1171570).
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  24. Notaire: Gilles RageotQuebec, Film #008710878, image 1247 of 3381. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QHV-J3DQ-J7FR?i=1246&cat=1171570; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1171570).
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  26. Notaire: Gilles RageotQuebec, Film #008710878, image 1640 of 3381, dossier #1738. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QHV-J3DQ-JW7H?i=1638&cat=1171570; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1171570).
  27. Sulte, Benjamin, Histoire des Canadiens-Français 1608-1880 : origine, histoire, religion, guerres, découvertes, colonisation, coutumes, vie domestique, sociale et politique, développement, avenir. (Montreal, Wilson & Cie., 1882-1884), vol 5, p 84.
  28. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, Rageot, Gilles (1666-1691), image 126 of 200; Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005508_0897-00127.
  29. Notaire: Gilles Rageot, Quebec, Film 008806113, image 456-457 of 1327; dossier #2740. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QHV-P3NF-49F1-Y?i=455&cat=1171570; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1171570).
  30. Pierre Duquet, Quebec, Film # 008330439, image 2028 of 2640. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSTC-P9P5-N?cat=1175224; digital images, FamilySearch, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1175224).
  31. Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1637-1935 (Lehi, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016), Ancestry.com, Répertoires de notaires (Notarial catalogs), Québec, Saint-Luc, Charles Rageot (1695-1702), image 11 of 48; Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61062/images/45894_83024005550_1162-00012.
  32. “BANQ”, National Library and Archives of Quebec, Advitam (https://advitam.banq.qc.ca/), Procès-verbal de vérification d’une ligne et des bornes séparant deux terres suivant la sentence du lieutenant général civil et criminel au siège de la Prévôté et Amirauté de Québec en date du 12 août 1704. https://www.banq.qc.ca/archives/genealogie_histoire_familiale/recherche/index.html.
  33. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 55159, citing images d1p_31100004.jpg and d1p_31100005.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1685-11-26, Neuville; Anotine Bessiere of Villefranche, Eveche De Rodez, Rouergue, single, aged 35, and Jeanne Croteau, single, aged 16; father of groom, Paul Bessiere; mother of groom, Etiennette Givergue; father of bride, Vincent Croteau, of De LaChenaye; mother of bride, Jeanne Gobquin of De LaChenaye; witnesses, Antoine Buisson, Henri Chatel and Jean Lepic; priest, J Basset. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/55159; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  34. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 74825, citing image d1p_31400657.jpg last accessed 28 Jul 2021. Baptism, 1670-07-03, Sillery; Jeanne Croteau, female; father, Vincent Croteau, mother Jeanne Cotquin; godfather, Jacques Girard; godmother, Jeanne Yvonne;pries, Josepg Marie Chaumonnot. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/74825; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  35. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #13215, Jean Francois Grenon and Marie Louise Croteau. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/13215.
  36. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #2914, Antoine Bordeleau Laforest and Pierrette Alie. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/2914.
  37. Légaré, Jacques; Bertrand Desjardins, and Hubert Charbonneau, PRDH: Le Programme de Recherche en démographie historique (http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/home, Université de Montréal), Family #13776, Louis Croteau and Marie Angelique Chatillon Godin Desroches. https://www.prdh-igd.com/Membership/en/PRDH/famille/13776.
  38. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 55216, citing images d1p_31100080.jpg and d1p_31100081.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1695-11-22, Neuville; Louis Croteau of Ste-Croix, Eveche De Quebec, single, aged 23, and Marie Louis Bordeleau, single, aged 18; father of groom, Vincent Croteau of Ste-Croix, Eveche De Quebec; mother of groom, Jean Godequin of Ste-Croix, Eveche De Quebec; father of bride, Antoine Bordeleau; mother of bride, Pierrette Aliere; witnesses, Claude Charpantier and Antoine Bordeleau; priest, J Basset. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/55216; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  39. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 59135, citing image d1p_31410667.jpg; last accessed 29 Jul 2021. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/59135; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  40. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 134911, citing image d1p_31220508.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Burial, 1747-05-20, St-Antoine-de-Tilly; Louis Croteau, male, single, 76 years old; father, Vincent Croteau; mother, Jeanne Gotien; priest Noel; The act is dated June but it is truly an error; it is located between b 1747-05-08 and s 1747-06-09. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/134911; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  41. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 58809, citing image d1p_31410639.jpg; last accessed 29 Jul 2021. Baptism, 1672-11-30, recorded at Notre-Dame-de-Quebec, but baptism occurred at La Riviere du Cap-Rouge; born 1672-11-28, Louis Cretau, male; father, Vincent Cretaul; mother, Jeanne Gotquin; godfather, Louis Delahaye; godmother, Madeleine Duval, wife of Pierre Chapeau; M. Dethune had officy at the baptism and M. Ango wrote the act. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/58809; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  42. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 59135, citing image d1p_31410667.jpg; last accessed 29 Jul 2021. Baptism, 1674-11-27, Notre-Dame-de-Quebec; Laurent Croteau, male, of Riviere-des-Roches; birth, 1674-11-15; father, Vincent Croteau, of Riviere-des-Roches; mother, Jeanne Godequin of Riviere-des-Roches; godfather, Laurent Armand; godmother, Madeleine Duval, wife of Pierre Chapeau; priest officiating was Cyprient Dufort of the Seminaire de Quebec, and the acte was written by Henri Debernieres. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/59135; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  43. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 75170, citing image d1p_31400662.jpg; last accessed 29 Jul 2021. Baptism, 1677-02-01, Sillery; Nicolas Crotteau, male, of St-Michel at Notre-Dame-de-Foy; birth, 1677-01-29; father, Vincent Crotteau, of St-Michel at Notre-Dame-du-Foy; mother, Jeanne Godequin of St-Michel at Notre-Dame-du-Foy; godfather, Nicolas Langar; godmother, Marie Bonhomme, wife of St Crespin; priest, Antoine Dalmas. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/75170; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  44. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 75270, citing image d1p_31400663.jpg; last accessed 29 Jul 2021. Baptism, 1679-04-04, Sillery; Jean Croteau, male, of St-Michel; birth, 1679-04-03; father, Vincent Croteau, of St-Michel; mother, Jeanne Godequin of St-Michel; godfather, Jean Nuau Destcrespin; godmother, Marie Duval, wife of Pierre Mauffouex; priest, Antoine Dalmas. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/75270; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  45. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 69485, citing image d1p_31410945.jpg; last accessed 29 Jul 2021. Burial, 1684-12-26, Notre-Dame-de-Quebec; Jean Croteau, male, 5 years old; father, Vincent Croteau; mother, Jeanne Godequin; witnesses: Charles Deschambaut and Charles Nepveu; priest Henri Debernieres. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/69485; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  46. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 32789, citing image d1p_30780334.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1709-05-02, Ste-Famille, Island of Orleans; Charles Croteau of Ste-Croix, single, aged 27, and Suzanne Mesny, single, aged 20; father of groom, Vincent Croteau; mother of groom, Jean Godequin; father of bride, Etienne Mesni, deceased; mother of bride, Catherine Leisne; witnessed by Thierry Hazeur of St-Francois, Jean Desblois, Jacques Croteau, Pierre Croteau, and Raymond Chretien; they dispensed of the usual three bans, Priest Glandelet, finding no impediment to the marriage, and Priest Felix gives his blessing to the marriage, Priest F. Lamy gave consent. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/32789; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  47. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 134883, citing image d1p_31220496.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Burial, 1745-06-20, St-Antoine-de-Tilly; Charles Croteau, male, single, 62 years old; father, Vincent Croteau; mother, Jeanne Gotteau; priest Noel. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/134883; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  48. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 60233, citing image d1p_31410955.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Baptism, 1685-05-27, Québec (Notre-Dame-de-Québec); Marie Anne Croteau, female; birth, 1685-05-21; father, Vincent Croteau; mother, Jeanne Godequin; godfather, Jean Levrard; godmother, Anne Demer, wife of Jean Demer of Cote De Lauzon; priest, Henri Debernieres. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/60233; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  49. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 53804, citing image d1p_31100017.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Baptism, 1687-09-07, Neuville; Pierre Croteau, male; birth, 1687-09-01; father, Vincent Croteau; mother, Jeanne Godequin; godfather, Pierre Jallet; godmother, Ursule Trut, wife of Antoine of Cote De Lachenay du Quet; priest, Basset. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/53804; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  50. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 81285, citing image d1p_30991104.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1715-04-29, Charlesbourg; Pierre Croteau of Ste-Croix, single, and Marie Chartre of Ste-Croix, single; father of groom, Vincent Croteau; mother of groom, Francoise Gautier; father of bride, Francois Chartre; mother of bride, Marie Pauline Morin; witnessed by Simon and Jean Morin, Pierre Auclaid, Jacques Morand and Bernard Regneaul; priest, Leboullenger. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/81285; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  51. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 25116, citing image d1p_31220398.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1728-10-11, St-Antoine-de-Tilly; Jacques Croteau, single, and Marie Charlotte Dupont, single; father of groom, Vincent Croteau; mother of groom, Jeanne Codequin; father of bride, Guilladume Dupont; mother of bride, Suzanne Metaier; witnessed by Louis and Charles Croteau, Charles Rosseau, Jean Grenon, Francois Guyon, Degaspee, Jacques Houdes and Jean Baptiste Houde; priest, Resche. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/25116; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  52. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 134690, citing image d1p_31220423.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Marriage, 1733-11-22, St-Antoine-de-Tilly; Jacques Genet, widow, and Marie Croteau, single; spouse of groom, Louise Gaudin, deceased; father of bride, Vincent Croteau, deceased; mother of bride, Jeanne Gaudequin; witnessed by Louis, Charles, and Pierre Croteau, Jean Grenon, Etienne Demiets and Francois Grenon; priest, Rouillard. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/134690; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  53. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 60905, citing image d1p_31411146.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Baptism, 1692-11-06, Québec (Notre-Dame-de-Québec); Marie Louise Croteau, female, of Villeaux; birth, 1687-09-01; father, Vincent Croteau of Villeaux; mother, Jeanne Godequin of Villeaux; godfather, Louis Michel D’Huesre; godmother, Marie Anne Levrard, wife of Jean Levrar; priest, N Dubos. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/60905; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).
  54. Institut généalogique Drouin, Le LAFRANCE, acte 25223, citing image d1p_31220394.jpg; last accessed 09 August 2021. Burial, 1727-10-04, St-Antoine-de-Tilly; Jeanne Gaudequin, female, widow, 80 years old; spouse, Vincent Croteau, deceased; witnesses: Rosseau and Jacques Houde; priest Resche. https://www.genealogiequebec.com/Membership/LAFRANCE/acte/25223; database with images, Généalogie Québec (https://www.genealogiequebec.com/en/lafrance).

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